Saturday, May 23, 2020

Oral Care Major Players Launch Growth - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 13 Words: 4017 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/09/16 Category Advertising Essay Did you like this example? MARKET REPORT Oral care: Major players launch growth-driving products USA Positive performances by all oral care categories led to market growth of 5% in 2007. Toothpastes and mouthwashes grew by 3% and 8% respectively, while whitening treatments posted growth of 10% – a turnaround from the decline of previous years. All categories have bene? ted from product launches. Education in the category continues to revolve around the link between oral care and overall health. For example, Colgate-Palmolive partnered with health insurer Aetna and numerous drug chains to offer an education programme on preventive dental care and its link to general wellbeing. Also, in September 2007, GSK, the American Dental Association (ADA) and the ADA Foundation debuted the Oral Longevity programme, designed to increase oral health awareness in older adults. Market Review US †¢ New products lead to growth in all categories †¢ In? ux of products from foreign marketers †¢ Technological innovation aids upturn of whitening strip sales Canada †¢ Toothpastes and mouthwashes grow, while sales of whitening treatments are ? t Toothpastes Toothpaste sales grew by 3% in 2007. Products made with natural ingredients continue to be successful, according to industry sources. Private label sales are minor. In June 2007, the FDA advised consumers to avoid using toothpastes manufactured in China, as many that had been imported from the country were found to contain poi sonous chemical diethylene glycol. Some of the counterfeits were falsely labelled as Colgate, but other major brands were not impacted and so the situation is unlikely to have hindered overall growth. USA and Canada: Oral care categories 2005-2007 Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Oral Care: Major Players Launch Growth" essay for you Create order USA US$mn Toothpastes Mouthwashes Whitening treatments Total Canada Toothpastes Mouthwashes Whitening treatments Total 163. 5 75. 9 32. 6 272. 1 173. 9 82. 0 30. 7 286. 5 178. 8 86. 9 30. 4 296. 0 2005 1,619. 1 721. 9 298. 8 2,639. 8 2006 1,635. 3 772. 5 265. 9 2,673. 6 2007 1,690. 5 834. 9 291. 3 2,816. 8 The competitive environment Crest continues to battle with Colgate for the category’s No. 1 spot. Crest grew by 8% and takes roughly a third of category sales. The growth was largely thanks to sales of its Pro-Health toothpaste, which more than trebled to reach $95mn. The presentation bene? ed from a category-leading adspend of $69mn. Crest Pro-Health tackles cavities, gingivitis, plaque, sensitivity, stains, tartar build-up and bad breath. Education about the brand informs consumers about the links between oral care and overall wellbeing. Meanwhile, industry sources stated that the Pro-Health Night arm of the range, launched in September 2007, has proved popular with consum ers. It is positioned to tackle bacteria through the night. Source: Nicholas Hall’s Insight, sales via all retail outlets, full year 2007 (MSP), applies to following tables and references to sales data in the text unless otherwise stated. Canadian data based on exchange rate of US$mn: C$mn – 0. 9870, published in the UK Financial Times on 1 January 2008 Simpli? yle 6 MARCH 2008 63 ORAL CARE Crest Whitening Plus Scope grew by 8% to $138mn. However, sales of Crest Whitening Expressions fell by 18% to $68mn. Crest Extra White Plus Scope was launched in September 2007 with the â€Å"Smile Bright in the Spotlight† competition, which offered the chance to host the People’s Choice Awards show with presenter Ryan Seacrest. PG spent around $35mn advertising Crest Nature’s Expressions – introduced in April 2007 – which includes natural ingredients. The brand is for consumers â€Å"who want to experience natural ingredients but whose preference indicates a strong loyalty to brands with established heritage† according to Diane Dietz, general manager of PG’s North American oral care business. Crest Healthy Radiance Toothpaste System is available to consumers from March 2008. It comprises toothpaste and weekly deep clean strips, to strengthen enamel and whiten teeth. The system is targeted at women who want to achieve a healthy and attractive smile with one product. Sales of Colgate – which take around a third of category dollars – remained ? at despite the range being developed. Growth may have been hindered, in part, by concerns over counterfeit toothpaste falsely labelled as Colgate, which was found in some discount stores in June 2007. In 2007, Colgate-Palmolive launched premium-priced Total Advanced Clean. It contains silica – to polish teeth – and an antibacterial formula that creates a protective germ? ghting coating. The launch was supported by professional sampling and advertising featuring actress Brooke Shields. Also, in April 2007, the Max Fresh range was extended with Burst presentations, infused with â€Å"50% more breath strips† than the regular version, according to the company. A+P review: Leading US oral care adspends 2007 Brand Marketer US$mn Crest Listerine Colgate Aquafresh Rembrandt Sensodyne Arm Hammer ACT Orajel* SmartMouth PG McNeil / JJ Colgate-Palmolive GSK Personal Products / JJ GSK Church Dwight Chattem Del Laboratories Triumph Pharmaceuticals 204. 1 97. 1 55. 8 46. 1 22. 0 19. 2 13. 2 8. 6 4. 5 4. 2 *Toothpaste only. Does not include adspend for oral pain SKUs Source: TNS Media Intelligence, 12 months to 30 September 2007, taken from the top 50 adspends of dental care presentations. Applies to all references to adspends in the text It was supported with an adspend of close to $8mn and promoted by Hispanic musician Tito el Bambino. GSK offers Aquafresh and Sensodyne. Aquafresh – which takes around 8% of category dollars – grew by 10% to $142m. This was aided by three product launches – Aquafresh Advanced is positioned as a multi-bene? t toothpaste, while Iso-active creates microscopic bubbles during brushing that penetrate hard-to-reach areas. Lastly, Aquafresh White Shine was launched in 2007 and carries claims not only to whiten, but also to contain microbuffers that polish teeth. After an initial bout of consumer interest surrounding its launch in 2006, Aquafresh Extreme Clean declined by 13% to $42mn. Sensodyne sales were ? at at $76mn. The brand’s two most recent additions, ProNamel and Full Protection, were supported with adspends of over $16mn and nearly $3mn respectively. The rest of the line has been repackaged. Following Colgate-Palmolive’s purchase of Tom’s of Maine in 2006, its toothpaste range has grown by 6%, fuelled by ongoing demand for natural products. Packaging has been updated to make the speci? c bene? s of each toothpaste clearer. In December 2007, Natural Clean Gentle toothpastes were launched, including SKUs for whitening and dry mouth. Sensitive Care Antiplaque toothpaste is IRI market facts: US OTC oral care 2007 (RSP) Category Toothpastes Mouthwashes Whitening treatments Sales $mn 1,260. 4 684. 0 242. 3 % change +2. 9 +8. 4 +11. 0 Source: Information Resources Inc, sales in food, drug and mass merchandise outlets (excludes Wal-Mart), 52 weeks to 30 December 2007 Simpli? yle 6 64 MARCH 2008 MARKET REPORT Paediatric presentations There were several developments in OTC oral care for children in 2007. Colgate-Palmolive, which markets a range of paediatric toothpastes, partnered with Reading is Fundamental to offer the â€Å"Healthy Bedtime Habits for a Lifetime† programme, in which families can use online tools to create a bedtime rituals log. Vi-Jon Laboratories has launched Inspector Hector. The brand comprises two products – Inspector Hector Plaque Detector, a pre-brush rinse that turns plaque blue so that children know where to brush, and Inspector Hector Tooth Protector, a ? uoride rinse. Meanwhile, Dr Fresh recently launched Fire? y MouthSwoosh, which has a light-up timer cap that ? ashes for 30 seconds, the recommended amount of time to use the product each session. In April 2007, all bottles of McNeil / JJ’s Listerine Agent Cool Blue rinse were recalled after it was found that the product’s â€Å"preservative system [was] not adequate against certain microorganisms†. The company is re-entering the paediatric market in March 2008 with Listerine Smart Rinse, an anti-cavity ? uoride rinse. In terms of toothpastes, Aim Kids for 6-10 year olds was launched in July 2007. Unlike many paediatric toothpastes, the brand does not use a licensed cartoon character, which enables Church Dwight to maintain the low pricing of the value-based range. Meanwhile, Crest has extended the trend of unusual ? avours to its children’s Wild Expressions toothpaste, with Burstin’ Bubblegum and Cinnsational Swirl. another new addition, to be rolled out in the ? rst half of 2008. Both new ranges contain patent-pending ingredient glycyrrhizin, from puri? ed licorice, which provides a natural foaming experience, according to the company. Church Dwight ? elds Arm Hammer, Mentadent, Aim and Close-Up. The company is set to launch Arm Hammer Age Defying toothpaste in 2008, which is positioned to strengthen teeth and repair damage caused by whitening products. Rembrandt sales were ? at in the reporting period. The brand was relaunched and repackaging following its purchase by Personal Products / JJ from Gillette in October 2005. Its A+P targets young people, using a traveling store that hosted makeover parties and concerts. Availability of Pierre Fabre’s pharmacy toothpaste, Elgydium, is being extended to the US by the French company’s US subsdiary, Sante Active. Elgydium whitening and anti-cavity toothpastes, plus four toothbrush models, will be sold in pharmacies and online. Swedish cosmetic company Ori? ame has also made a foray into the US oral care market with OptiFresh, a toothpaste formulated with sea algae rich in zinc, iron, calcium and phosphor that helps â€Å"remineralise† tooth enamel. Other launches include BreathRx Sensitive Formula (Discus Dental) and Healthy Teeth Gums toothpaste line (The Natural Dentist). Prospects Natural products and ? avouring innovations are set to remain popular. Industry insiders cite toothpastes with multiple bene? s and products positioned for the ageing population as drivers of future growth. Mouthwashes Mouthwashes continue to perform well, posting growth of 8%. Private labels claim around 11% of sales and grew by 5%. Niche products are partly responsible for the overall growth, as more breath fresheners and dry mouth presentations have been launched. Additionally, innovative positioning, such as extolling the bene? ts of using mouthwash at night, has proved successful. In company news, Chattem announced in May 2007 that it was to acquire the rights to ACT mouthwash in Western Europe and trademark rights worldwide. Prior to this, Chattem acquired US rights to ACT from JJ, which divested the brand as a condition of its buyout of P? zer CH. The competitive environment Listerine takes half of category sales and managed 7% growth. The launch of Listerine Tooth Defense – in March 2007 – added $21mn sales to the brand. The ? uoride Simpli? yle 6 MARCH 2008 65 ORAL CARE rinse strengthens teeth and prevents cavities, a departure from Listerine’s usual positioning of reducing plaque and gingivitis. This was a welcome boost, considering a 13% decline in sales of Listerine Whitening to $44mn. McNeil spent $97mn on press, radio and TV ads for the brand. The company also markets Listerine PocketPaks. PG’s collection of Crest mouthwashes generated $104mn in 2007 and grew by 35%. Crest Pro-Health Rinse increased by 16% to $80mn. As with the ProHealth toothpaste, the rinse has been extended with a nighttime presentation. Meanwhile, sales of Crest Whitening Rinse trebled to $24mn in 2007. PG also ? elds Scope, which posted a decline of 6%. The launch of Scope White mouthwash, which has been promoted with TV ads, may revitalise the brand. Declining sales of ACT’s core presentation were offset by the strong performance of ACT Restoring mouthwash. Chattem launched a 33oz version of ACT Restoring in March 2007. The larger bottle has a lower ? uoride dose compared to the original 18oz size (? uoride sodium 0. 02% vs ? uoride sodium 0. 05%). This is owing to regulations limiting the amount of ? uoride allowed in a single bottle. As a result, consumers are instructed to use the 33oz version of the mouthwash twice a day as opposed to once. The brand is supported by year-round TV, press and in-store ads. ACT was formerly part of Personal Products / JJ’s oral care portfolio, which includes the Reach dental accessories range. When JJ owned both of these brands, a version of the mouthwash called Reach ACT Restoring was available but following ACT’s divestment to Chattem, SKUs under this name are no longer in production. BreathRx – launched in 2006 – grew by 81% to around $8mn. Discus Dentals has added Sensitive Formula Mouth Rinse to the range, along with numerous new SKUs including toothpaste. The new products are formulated with trademarked ingredient, Zytex, which contains thymol, eucalyptus oil and zinc. Meanwhile, the TheraBreath Starter Kit was rolled out by Dr Harold USA: Mouthwash / rinse shares 2007 Listerine 50% McNeil / JJ Crest 13% Procter Gamble Scope 7% Procter Gamble ACT* 4% Chattem Colgate 2% Colgate-Palmolive Biotene 2% Laclede Others, inc PLs 22% *excludes $14mn sales of Reach ACT Restoring †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ Katz in January 2008. Each box contains TheraBreath rinse, toothpaste, ? oss strips, chewing gum, dry mouth breath mints, a tongue cleaner and a Fresh Breath Guide. The kit was promoted with â€Å"Try Me Free† rebate offer. Additionally, the Healthy Gums Oral Rinse formula (The Natural Dentist) has been updated to contain 100% natural ingredients. The company is extending the brand with an anticavity ? uoride rinse in April 2008. Alva-Amco’s Theradent has been extended with a teeth desensitising oral rinse – the ? rst OTC rinse to treat oral sensitivity, according to the company. SmartMouth (Triumph Pharmaceuticals) is also available. The National Advertising Division recently substantiated Triumph’s claim that SmartMouth â€Å"prevents bad breath for 12 hours (12 x more than any competitor). In terms of dry mouth rinses, Biotene rinse grew by 16% to $16mn. This was partially owing to the introduction of Oral Balance Liquid in 2006, which is packaged in a squirt bottle for convenience. GSK competes in the segment with Oasis mouthwash and mouthspray. In April, DiabEase Dead Sea Mineral mouth rinse (Masada Health Beauty Corp) was launched, to ease dry mouth and oral symptoms associa ted with diabetes, while Rain Dry Mouth Spray (Xlear) followed in July. Sales of antiseptic oral cleansers have suffered. GSK’s Glyoxide declined by 57% to under $5mn and Colgate Simpli? yle 6 66 MARCH 2008 MARKET REPORT Per-Oxyl fell by 8% to $9mn. Such products have strong competition from high-priced speciality items that incorporate new technology, such as canker sore discs (see Market Report, November 2007, pp301-302). USA: Whitening treatment shares 2007 Crest Whitestrips 55% Procter Gamble Aquafresh White Trays 12% GSK Rembrandt 12% Personal Products / JJ Listerine Whitening 8% McNeil / JJ Private labels 8% †¢ †¢ †¢ Prospects Niche products, such as those for dry mouth, will continue to drive growth, while innovative positioning will encourage consumers to use mouthwash more often within their daily regime. †¢ †¢ Whitening treatments A ? urry of new products has revived the whitening category, with sales increasing by 10%. In particular, products that make the whitening process quicker and easier have enhanced sales. Whitening treatments have also started to incorporate bene? ts traditionally associated with toothpastes and mouthwashes, such as tartar protection and h alitosis prevention. Others 5% Sales of Rembrandt fell by 32% to $34mn, despite an adspend of over $5mn. The range comprises whitening kits, strips and a touch-up pen. In July 2007, JJ launched Listerine Whitening Quick Dissolving Strips, which have since had sales of $22mn. The strips use multi-layer technology that releases hydrogen peroxide to whiten teeth. It also carries claims to kill bad breath germs. New products from large marketers have hampered sales of smaller brands. White Light (Telebrands) has declined by 77%, while Wellquest Ionic fell by 68%. Plus White (CCA Industries) has managed 15% growth, thanks, in part, to updating. Plus White Kits contain a more comfortable mouthpiece, while the 5-minute Speed Whitening Gel is now available for sensitive teeth. Church Dwight is to launch Arm Hammer Whitening Booster in 2008, a tube-based high peroxide formula intended for daily use in addition to toothpaste. Belgium-based company Remedent has announced plans to bring new technology to the US whitening treatment segment. It will begin shipping iWhite, a light activated teeth-whitening kit, to CVS stores in April 2008. The competitive environment Crest Whitestrips continue to lead, taking over half of category dollars. However, the brand has declined by 6% to $160mn, partially owing to increased competition. Crest Whitestrips had an adspend of around $70mn, over half of which went towards the Daily Multicare variant. The company has continued the â€Å"Brightest Five Minutes of your Day† campaign, which encourages consumers to incorporate the strips into their daily regimes. PG is extending its whitening treatments with Crest Whitestrips Daily Whitening Plus Tartar Protection, expected in stores in March 2008. The strips are positioned to protect against the build-up of tartar, as well as whiten and protect against everyday stains. GSK entered the whitening treatments category in Q1 2007 with Aquafresh White Trays, which posted ales of $35mn. The trays are pre-dosed with hydrogen peroxide solution 10% and are ? exible to provide a custom ? t. GSK has spent $23mn promoting the brand, which has already been extended with Aquafresh White Trays Revive, a touch-up whitening product to be used between whitening treatments. Prospects Innovative technology that makes whitening quicker and easier will continue to be the key growth driver. Products with additional bene? ts and the introduction of SKUs that complement whitening treatments, such as Aquafresh White Trays Revive, are also avenues for growth. Simpli? yle 6 MARCH 2008 67 ORAL CARE Canada The OTC oral care market – toothpastes, mouthwashes and whitening treatments – continued its steady single-digit growth in 2007, advancing by 3%. Hardware such as toothbrushes is not included in our topline ? gures. Marketers have employed education initiatives to attract consumers to the OTC oral care market. PG promotes Crest and Oral-B as part of its Teeth For Life campaign, which aims to raise awareness of the importance of oral health and raise funds to support Dentistry Canada. Meanwhile, the fourth Listerine Gingivitis week was hosted in June 2007 in conjunction with the Canadian Dental Hygienists Association. about toothpastes from China containing diethylene glycol and ordered retailers to remove all toothpastes from the country off their shelves. Also, Neem Active Toothpaste With Calcium (Calcutta Chemical Co) – manufactured in India – was recalled in July 2007 as it also contained DEG, along with harmful bacteria. Although the brand was not approved for sale in Canada, it was found in some stores. The competitive environment Colgate-Palmolive is one of the key players and it launched Colgate Visible White toothpaste – formulated with peroxide – in summer 2007. The company claims that it not only removes surface stains but also deep stains which have penetrated below the surface. Consumers are expected to be able to notice results within two weeks of use. The launch was supported by the â€Å"Rede? ne White – Rede? ne You† competition, the grand prize for which is a professional makeover and a female-oriented gift pack, demonstrating that the brand is targeted at women. TV ads have also been used to promote Colgate Visible White. Colgate Max Fresh is also now marketed in Canada in tubes or squeezable bottles. Both formats include mini breath freshening strips which are embedded in the paste. Advertising is targeted at young people. For example, the purple-coloured Kiss Me Mint variant, in peppermint and berry ? avour, invites consumers to â€Å"be tempting† which it says is about â€Å"attitude† and â€Å"dancing until dawn†. Max Fresh Burst toothpaste, with â€Å"50% more breath strips†, is new to the range; advertising highlights the added freshness that the toothpaste creates. The Colgate toothpaste range also includes Luminous, to reinforce enamel layers, Sparkling White, Tartar Control, Cavity Protection, Sensitive Whitening and children’s toothpastes. PG markets a selection of toothpastes in the Crest range including Whitening Expressions, Vivid White, Toothpaste Sales of toothpastes grew by 3%, largely thanks to a double-digit advance by presentations for sensitive teeth. Toothpastes for this condition are now the most lucrative type and grew by 16% to reach sales of $42mn. In 2006, whitening toothpastes were the best-sellers but a decline of 14% brought sales down to $36mn in 2007. Sales of toothpastes for children grew by 1% to close to $11mn. Meanwhile, those speci? ed for tartar control fell by 12% to $3mn. As with the FDA, Health Canada issued warnings Nielsen market facts: Canadian oral care 2007 Category Dentifrice excluding polishes whiteners Baking soda Kids Sensitive Tartar control Whitening Oral antiseptics Whitening kits Sales C$mn 222. 1 2. 4 13. 1 52. 6 4. 4 44. 7 107. 6 37. 6 % change 07/06 +2 -6 +1 +16 -12 -14 +6 -1 Source: Nielsen MarketTrack, grocery, drug, mass merchandisers, general merchandisers and warehouse clubs, 52 weeks ending 19 January 2008 (RSP) Simpli? yle 6 8 MARCH 2008 MARKET REPORT Complete, MultiCare, Sensitivity Protection, Cavity Protection, Tartar Protection and presentations for children. Crest Pro-Health has recently been extended with a nighttime variant, claimed to improve oral health, even after dark. Crest Extra White With Scope has also been launched. Tom’s of Maine – acquired by Colgate – markets its toothpastes in Canada, too. GSK markets original Sensodyne and Sensodyne-F, which contains sodium ? uoride. ProNamel, for those at risk of acid erosion, has been part of the Sensodyne range since September 2006. GSK also markets Aquafresh White Shine. Church Dwight ? elds several toothpaste brands – Arm Hammer, Close Up, Aim and Pearl Drops. The competitive environment Crest Whitestrips are marketed by PG. The latest addition is Daily Multicare which is designed to be used for ? ve minutes each day. The Whitestrips range also includes original presentations and Renewal, which aims to remove 20 years of stains. Rembrandt whitening kits are marketed by JJ’s Personal Products. Meanwhile, Arm Hammer Dental Care Whitening Gum is marketed by Church Dwight. It is positioned to be chewed after meals to clean and whiten teeth. Prospects Unlike many OTC categories, launches in Canada quickly follow those in the US so some recently added products from across the border could soon reach Canadian shelves. Big name launches in the whitening category could be particularly bene? cial to sales. Mouthwash Mouthwashes continued to grow, with sales advancing by 6%. However, there was no change in volume sales, indicating that the dollar growth is a result of higher prices, or a move to premium SKUs. The competitive environment Listerine is a leading player. The range includes various presentations including a whitening pre-brush rinse. As in the US, the products are now offered with a less potent taste. A+P emphasises that these are the same formulation, but with a milder ? avour. Listerine PocketPak breath strips are also offered in Canada. PG launched its ? rst Crest mouthwash – Pro-Health Rinse – in late 2007. This follows the launch of Pro-Health toothpaste in 2006. The rinse is alcohol-free which makes it more comfortable for consumers to use twice a day, according to the company. The brand has been successful in the US (see US section of this Market Report) so PG will be hoping for a repeat performance in Canada. PG also markets Scope mouthwash. Scope White – for fresh breath and whitening – was launched in 2007 and, as in the US, was promoted by television star, Ryan Seacrest. Market forecast USA †¢ The number of multi-bene? t presentations is set to grow as key advantages offered by each product type become increasingly blurred †¢ Demographics such as older adults and diabetics will be targeted speci? cally †¢ A+P for whitening treatments is likely to be stepped up following increased competition in the category CANADA †¢ Additions to the Crest Pro-Health range will help to drive growth †¢ In? ences from the US will further penetrate the Canadian market Our thanks to our regular data providers: For information on IRI, contact Ryan Stredney on t: 312-474-3862; f: 312-474-2592 For TNS-Media Intelligence / Competitive Media Reporting, contact John Ciotoli on t: 212-991-6087 For The Nielsen Company, contact Kristen Ridley via t: 905-943-8343 Whitening trea tments Following a decline in 2006, sales of OTC teeth whitening presentations were virtually ? at in 2007. Simpli? yle 6 MARCH 2008 69 Essential reports from Nicholas Hall SURVIVAL STRATEGIES in Consumer Healthcare Vitamins, Minerals Supplements The essential guide to planning an effective VMS growth strategy PUBLISHED OCTOBER 2007 This 300-page report puts VMS under the microscope in the leading developed and emerging markets. Using latest data from Nicholas Hall’s global OTC database, DB6 2007, it will explain the latest developments and the necessary conditions to return the market to growth, with a special emphasis on evidence-based NPD and marketing. 2 brand case studies prove it’s possible to achieve high growth, even in a static market. NEW! Published April 2008 (with all-new data): Gastrointestinals The latest report in this essential series focuses on what was the fastest-growing OTC category in 2006. 250 pages offer up-to-date information and present expert analysis of the changing climate in the leading developed and emerging markets. Buy the whole report, or individual country modules. Ord er NOW to benefit from pre-publication discounts. An essential lifeline for marketers in all the core OTC categories Nicholas Hall Survival Strategies reports are the definitive guides to success in key OTC categories, providing trends developments, competitive intelligence, case studies, market analysis and future strategies – all backed by detailed charts and tables based on data from Nicholas Hall’s unique global OTC database, DB6. Other recent titles: Analgesics (2006); Dermatologicals (2006); Cough, Cold Allergy (2005). All offer the same ssential mix of information and analysis: †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ Detailed regional and key country reviews †¢ Analysis of trends developments Hundreds of charts tables †¢ Developments in specific therapeutic areas Rx-to-OTC switch environment †¢ Ingredient status and key indications Case studies of key brands (established category leaders and dynamic switches) Review of the wider competitive environment to assess the impact of new remed ies What the future holds Contact Stacy Wootton on +44 (0) 1702 220 204 or email stacy. [emailprotected] com for further information.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Essay on Vission, Mission and Nursing Philosophy - 1008 Words

Vision, Mission and Nursing Philosophy Mercedes Condom RN University of Phoenix NUR 588 10/13/2014 Every health care organization in the United Stated has a mission statement and a vision. We also can say that the mission and vision guides the organization purpose of service and practice. This is also true for colleges and universities. We also have an understanding that creating a philosophy that supports the values of the organization is essential. Therefore, when the project is in the formulation state, the members have to clear understanding of their own beliefs and value. Baptist Health of South Florida mission and vision statement are in nature related to helping our community†¦show more content†¦Baptist Health will be a national and international leader in healthcare innovation (BHSF 2014). BHSF nursing philosophy is based on the Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring/Caring Science. By having a nursing theorist base practice, the development of a nursing philosophy becomes lucid. BHSF nursing philosophy stated as follow, NURSING PHILOSOPHY The nursing staff of BSHF is committed to maintaining the highest standards of nursing care and service excellence. This care is fostered through the nursing process--assessment, diagnosis, identification of outcomes, planning, implementation, and evaluation. We believe the primary purpose of nursing is to provide culturally congruent, non-discriminatory, safe and beneficial care to the patient, family, and significant others. Healing is promoted by competent staff, providing culturally congruent care, while educating patients / families and significant others in the caring process. Education of patients / families and significant others promotes independence, self-care and bio-psycho-social healing. Nursing Services advocates participative management through shared responsibility and accountability. We foster and encourage nursing autonomy and professional development through competency development, education and training. The

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Proposed Leave Management System for Dutch-Bangla Bank Limited Free Essays

string(83) " current system and collecting required data to develop a model of the new system\." Moreover, DBBL has introduced ATM cards and Internet banking to ensure the customer’s freedom to choose his/her own banking hours. 1. 1. We will write a custom essay sample on A Proposed Leave Management System for Dutch-Bangla Bank Limited or any similar topic only for you Order Now 1 Vision Dutch-Bangla bank dreams of better Bangladesh, where arts and letters, sports and athletics, music and entertainment, science and education, health and hygiene, clean and pollution free environment and above all a society based on morality and ethics make all our lives worth living. DBBL’s essence and ethos rest on a cosmos of creativity and the marvel – magic of a charmed life that abounds with spirit of life and adventures that contributes towards human development [4]. x . 1. 2 Mission Dutch-Bangla Bank engineers enterprise and creativity in business and industry with a commitment to social responsibility. Profits alone do not hold a central focus in the bank’s operation, because man does not live by bread and butter alone[4]. 1. 1. 3 Core Objectives Dutch-Bangla Bank believes in its uncompromising commitment to fulfill its customer needs and satisfaction and to become their first choice in banking. Taking cue form its pool esteemed clientele, Dutch-Bangla Bank intends to pave the way for a new era in banking that upholds and epitomizes its vaunted marques â€Å"Your Trusted Partner† [4]. . 1. 4 Products and Services DBBL is offering Products and Services in three main forms: †¢ Deposit †¢ Term Deposit †¢ Loan and Advances 1. 1. 4. 1 Deposit Under Deposit the following products are available: †¢ Savings Deposit Account †¢ Current Deposit Account †¢ Short Term Deposit Account †¢ Resident Foreign Currency Deposit †¢ Foreign Currency Depositxi †¢ Convertible Taka Account †¢ Non-Convertible Taka Account †¢ Exporter’s FC Deposit (FBPAR) †¢ Current Deposit Account-Bank †¢ Short Term Deposit Account-Bank 1. 1. 4. 2 Term Deposit Under Term Deposit the following products are offered: Monthly Term Deposit †¢ Term Deposit 3 Months †¢ Term Deposit 6 Months†¢ Term Deposit 12 Months †¢ Term Deposit 24 Months †¢ Term Deposit 24 Months 1 Year Payout †¢ Term Deposit 36 Months †¢ Term Deposit 36 Months 6 Months Payout †¢ Term Deposit 36 Months 1 Year Payout †¢ Term Deposit above 36 Months †¢ Monthly Term Deposit Banks †¢ Term Deposit 3 Months Banks †¢ Term Deposit 6 Months Banks †¢ Term Deposit 12 Months Banks †¢ 1 Month TD NFCD †¢ Months TD NFCD †¢ 6 Months TD NFCDxii 1. 1. 4. 3 Loan and Advances The followings are known as Loan and Advances products: †¢ Loan against Trust Receipt †¢ Transport Loan Consumer Credit Scheme †¢ Real Estate Loan (Res. ; Comm. ) †¢ Loan against Accepted Bill †¢ Industrial Term Loan †¢ Agricultural Term Loan †¢ Lease Finance †¢ Other Term Loan †¢ FM O Local Currency Loan for SME †¢ FMO Foreign Currency Loan †¢ Cash Credit (Hypothecation) †¢ Small Shop Financing Scheme †¢ Overdraft 1. 1. 5 Social Responsibilities of DBBL Dutch-Bangla Bank Limited (DBBL) is the first Bangladeshi-European joint venture bank in Bangladesh addresses social concerns that threaten the structure of society and redress social conditions that adversely affect the wellbeing of people and society.DBBL practice thus encompass the professional activities of helping individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities to enhance or restore their capacity for optimal social functioning and of creating societal conditions favorable to this goal. xiii 1. 2 Objective of the Project The advancement in technology in the last few decades has improved our lives in every aspect. Manually driven systems are being substituted by the computerized systems.The existing Leave Management System of DBBL is totally manual to keep track of all the leave associated records such as leave status, employee’s availability and creating yearly reports etc. DBBL uses a very lengthy process to grant or refuse leave including finding out the eligibility of the employees for the type of leave applied for. Moreover, the information can be distorted as it has to go through a long chain of officials. The objective of this project is to formulate a sensible analysis of the current system to find out its problems and thus design a new computerized system which will be more optimized and synchronized.The management will be availed with such a system which may make their task simpler incase of leave related activities and the employees will not need to wait for a long time to know the decision of the management. 1. 3Why Leave Management System? When I was accepted as an intern by DBBL, I was placed in Mohakhali Branch under the direct supervision of the Branch Manager. The Branch Manager allowed me to observe the functionalities of all the departments and also let me browse the software named â€Å"Flex-cube†, which they are using for all the transactions. I found that, all the schemes are automated except the Leave Management System and this manual system is creating a lot of problem for the management. I have discussed with the Branch Manager and let him know my interest to automate this system. He accepted my proposal and told me about their expectations from this system. xiv 1. 4 Methodology In the beginning, key data has been extracted from a detailed description of the current Leave Management System as a whole, and then potential problems in the current system have been identified.Next, proposed system has been elaborated and after that the goal of the project has been established to provide better data reliability, more automation and less effort. Efficient real time data storage, data manipulation capabilities and up-to-date report generation are the most important concerns of the proposed system. Then, key aspects of the proposed system are explained in details with prototype-planning phase, analysis phase and design phase. 1. 5 Organization of the Report In chapter II, the Existing System has been described. I have given the complete elaboration of the Proposed System in chapter III.Conclusion is written in chapter IV and then references and appendices are attached. xv 2. 1 Requirements Determination Requirements determination is one of the most complicated and prolonged part of developing a new system. It is the combination of gathering and analyzing information about the existing system. The primary objectives of the requirements determination are to understand the existing policies, identify the problems of the current system and collecting required data to develop a model of the new system. You read "A Proposed Leave Management System for Dutch-Bangla Bank Limited" in category "Papers" The deliverables for requirements determination that I have used are nterview transcripts, business mission and strategy statements, job descriptions of the employees, existing written documents and the results of Joint Application Design (JAD) sessions. With the intention of collecting the required data for my project I have interviewed Mr. Mashiur Rahman, the Manager of Mohakhali Branch of DBBL. He gave me an overall idea about the leave associated activities that he has to go through when an employee seeks leave. Then he referred me to Mr. Almas Uddin, the executive officer of the Human Resource Department (HRD) of DBBL.He explained some part of the leave policy of DBBL and provided me with some documents on service rules of DBBL. With the due permission of the Branch Manager I have organized two JAD sessions. In these sessions all the employees of Mohakhali branch participated and gave their priceless feedback. The outcomes were summarized and delivered to all the participants of these sessions. The outcomes of these sessions enabled me to find out the problems that both the management and the employees are facing from the existing system and their expectations from the new system. xvi 2. 2 An Overview of the Leave Policy 2. . 1 Categories of Leave Subject to fulfilling the terms and conditions as stipulated rules, the following eight types of leave may be admissible to an employee of DBBL. These are: 1. Earned Leave with full pay 2. Extraordinary Leave without pay 3. Medical Leave 4. Special Disability Leave 5. Quarantine Leave 6. Maternity Leave 7. Study Leave 8. Casual Leave 2. 2. 2 Description of Different Types of Leave Earned Leave with full pay: This type of leave is allowed for the employees who have completed 1 (One) year of continuous service in the bank. An employee is allowed to take earned leave once in a calendar year.This period has to be less than 30 (Thirty) days. Extraordinary Leave without pay: This type of leave may be granted for a maximum period of 2 (Two) months to an employee in special circumstances, when no other type of leave is available. This type of leave is allowed once for an employee in his/her entire service life. At least 3 (Three) years of continuous service is must for this type of leave. Medical Leave: Leave on medical ground may be granted for the period not exceeding 2 (Two) months. At least 1 (One) year of continuous service is needed for an employee to be eligible for this type of leave. vii Special Disability Leave: Special disability leave may be granted by the Human Resource Department to an employee who is disabled by injury inflicted or caused in course of, or in consequence of, the due performance of his/her official duty, or in consequence of his/her official position. This type of leave shall not be granted unless the disability manifested itself within three months of the occurrence to which it is attributed, and the person disabled acted with due promptitude in bringing it to the notice of the competent authority.An employee should comprise at least 3 (Three) years of continuous service to get this type of leave and the leave period should not exceed 6 (Six) months. Quarantine Leave: Quarantine leave is the leave of absence from duty by an employee as the presence of an infectious disease is found in his/her body. Cholera, Pox, Jaundice, Plague, Diphtheria, Typhoid, Measles, Mumps, Cerebra–spinal and Meningitis are considered as infectious diseases. An employee is allowed to take quarantine leave from his/her joining day at DBBL. The period of quarantine leave should not exceed 1 (One) month. Maternity Leave: Maternity leave may be granted by the competent authority to an employee for a maximum period of 3 (Three) months at a time. This type of leave shall not be admissible to an employee for more than two occasions during her entire period of service life. To be eligible for this type of leave one must complete 2 (Two) years of continuous service in the bank. Study Leave: Study leave for a period not exceeding 2 (Two) years may be granted by the HRD to an employee to enable him/her to study or undergo special courses of training considered useful for his/her services under the bank.An employee should encompass at least 3 (Three) years of continuous service to acquire the study leave. xviii Casual Leave: This kind of leave refers to a leave of absence for a very short period of days granted to an employee who may be unable to attend duty due to sudden illness or urgent private/family affairs. The total number of days for which casual leave shall be admissible in a calenda r year to an employee shall not exceed 15 (Fifteen) days. Moreover, not more than 6 (Six) days casual leave can be taken at a time. This kind of leave is allowed for an employee from his/her very first day at DBBL. 2. 2. Leave is not the Right Leave cannot be claimed as a matter of right. The competent authority shall have the right to refuse, or grant leave for a shorter period than applied for. No employee shall remain absent from duties, nor leave place of positioning on any ground whatsoever without obtaining prior approval of leave from the authority. 2. 2. 4 Recall from Leave An employee on leave may be recalled to duty before expiry of the leave and if recalled, s/he shall be treated on duty from the date on which s/he starts for the station. xix 2. 3 Description of the Existing System The existing Leave Management System of DBBL is manual.It is a lengthy process and this process is not optimized. The Human Resource Department and/or the Branch Manager are the competent authorities for the approval or refusal of leave depending on the type of leave. The Leave Management System is initiated with the submission of an application by an employee for leave. This application must be submitted to the Controlling Officer at least one month ahead (with the exception of casual leave and the quarantine leave) from the date of commencement of the leave applied for. For the branches of the bank, the Second Manager of the branch acts as the controlling officer.The controlling officer is responsible for checking out the eligibilities of the employee for the type of leave s/he has applied for. If the applicant is eligible then the controlling officer submits the application to the Branch Manager. The work of the Branch Manager is the most complicated as s/he is responsible for the synchronization of the leave. Moreover, he is also accountable for the smooth functionality of the branch. In case of Earned Leave with full pay, Medical Leave, Quarantine Leave and Casual Leave the Branch Manager has the sole authority to grant or refuse the leave.If the Branch Manager allows an employee for leave, s/he should inform the HRD by submitting a report, which will contain the details about the approved leave. For these types of leave the HRD do not allow any alternative employee. For the other four types of leave the Branch Manager sends the application to the Human Resource Department for approval. Then the HRD takes their decision and let the Branch Manager know the result by an official letter. Then the Branch Manager informs the applicant. So, an employee can not but wait for a long time to know the decision of the competent authority. Sometime the HRD sends a backup officer to the branch if they approve the leave of an employee for a long period of time. xx Furthermore, the Branch Manager is supposed to send an annual report informing the leave status of a calendar year to the HRD. Each branch maintains a register for the leave associated affairs. The Controlling Officer use to maintain this log. The Branch Manager uses this register to prepare the annual report. As the annual leave report is nothing but the summary of the leave register for a particular year, it is not that much helpful for taking any managerial decision.There is no opportunity to analyze the report and find out the scopes for improvements as the HRD is not getting any instant data from the report. They are getting present year’s leave status in the following year. As a result the top management is not being able to utilize the report in a proper manner. So, the existing Leave Management System is a time consuming one. It needs to be more optimized and more synchronized which will lead the management to have a more proficient system to support the total employee management scheme. xxi 2. 4 Flowchart of the Existing SystemThe Flowchart of the existing Leave Management System, which has been described above is given below: Fig 2. 1: The flowchart of the existing Leave Management System. xxii 2. 5 Drawbacks of the Existing System The current Leave Management System that DBBL is using has some drawbacks. The main drawbacks are: 1) Sometimes it happens that the branch runs short of employees as for the Casual leave and Quarantine leave the leave of absence is allowed and more than one employee remains absent on a same day. 2) Employees need to submit leave application one month ahead from the date of commencement of the leave applied for.Consequently, the employees cannot get the leave if it is immediately needed. 3) The leave register only contains the record of the granted leave. There is no pending leave list. So, if an employee failed to get the permission for leave, s/he has to apply again for the next time. 4) There is no priority assigned for the types of leave. As a result, it may happen that a less deserved person is getting the authorization in place of the person who actually needs the leave. 5) Data flow from the branch to the HRD requires many days and gets delayed. ) The HRD is getting present year’s leave report in the following year. As a result they are not getting any current data from the report. 7) The proper synchronization is absent in this system. 8) The Branch Manager may not be totally transparent in case of the approval of leave. S/he may misuse the power as it is hard for the HRD to trace what is going on in the branch. xxiii 9) The total process is very lengthy and it can make an employee extremely dissatisfied if s/he waits for a month for leave and finally ends with not getting it.In conclusion it can be said that, from the existing system it is hard to get accurate, reliable and up-to-date information which ensures better management and thereby more efficiency in the administrative work. So, the existing system needs to be altered with a new synchronized and optimized system. xxiv 3. 1 Introduction of New Concepts and Constraints I have introduced several concepts and constrains in the proposed Leave Management System which are not present in the current system. These ideas are used to make the proposed system more synchronized. 3. 1. 1 New ConceptsLeave Priority: Each type of leave is assigned with a priority. These priorities have been given on basis of the significance of the type of leave. Employee Priority: The employee priority is given on basis of the designation of the employee. If more than one employee is found with same designation, the service length of the employees is considered while assigning the priority. Employee Expertise: Employee expertise is given depending on the performance record of an employee in a particular department. The Human Resource Department is responsible for assigning the expertise level for each employee.Minimum Expertise Required for a Department: Each and every department requires a minimum amount of cumulative employee expertise to operate smoothly. This requirement is calculated depending on the work volume of a particular department. xxv 3. 1. 2 New Constraints †¢ If more than one employee applies for different types of leave, the employee who has applied for the type of leave with higher priority will be considered first. †¢ If more than one employee applies for same type of leave, the employee with higher priority will be considered first. The available cumulative employee expertise of a particular department should never be less than the minimum cumulative employee expertise required for the department to operate smoothly. xxvi 3. 2 Overview of the Proposed System Considering the existing problems of the Leave Management System, I have come up with a web based solution, which may simplify the work of the Branch Manager along with the Human Resource Department. The proposed system will help the competent authorities to formulate a decision regarding a leave request.The proposed system will be initiated if an employee fills up the leave request form and submits it. The system will verify the eligibilities of the employee for the type of leave s/he has applied for. If the applicant is eligible then the information will be added to the pending leave list. The system will sort the pending leave list on basis of the priority of the type of leave. If more than one employee requests for the same type of leave, the system will use the employee priority to sort the pending leave list.It is the duty of both the Branch Manager and the HRD to check the pending leave list frequently. In case of Earned Leave with full pay, Medical Leave, Quarantine Leave and Casual Leave the Branch Manager will make the decision. The system will not allow the Branch Manager to grant any leave request if the available expertise of a department becomes less than the minimum expertise required for the smooth operation of that department. If the manager still needs to grant the leave request, s/he should recall an employee who is already on leave so that the available expertise remains adequate. For the other four types of leave the Human Resource Department will make the decision. If the HRD grants any leave request they will have to send a backup officer to the branch with similar expertise. Furthermore, the proposed system will avail both the Branch Manager and the HRD with instant report generation. So the HRD will be able to see the leave status of a branch whenever they want and thus the proposed system will be helpful to take managerial decisions. xxvii 3. 3 Structuring the Proposed System: Process ModelingProcess modeling involves geographically representing the functions, or processes, which capture, manipulate, store and distribute data between a system and its environment and between components within a system [1]. 3. 3. 1 What is Context Diagram? An overview of an organizational system that shows the system boundaries, external entities that interact with the system and the major information flows between the entities and the system [1]. 3. 3. 2 Context Diagram of the Proposed System The context diagram is given in Appendix C. 3. 3. What is Data Flow Diagram? A picture of the movement of data between external entities, the processes and data stores within a system [1]. 3. 3. 4 Data Flow Diagram of the Proposed System Data flow diagram is provided in Appendix D. 3. 3. 5 Use Case Diagram of the Proposed System Use case diagram is provided in Appendix E. xxviii 3. 4 Design Phase 3. 4. 1 Designing Database The Branch Manager provided me with an idea about their expectation from the future system. Their main focus was on: †¢ Pending leave list †¢ Leave application form †¢ Up to date leave statusSo, I have decided to design the database containing the tables which will be able to store the inputs for the desired outputs. In addition, the back-end database is created using MySQL. There is no query in the database. Queries are maintained from the front-end. 3. 4. 1. 1 Finalizing the Tables for the Prototype No matter what information is to be retrieved from the fields of the tables, to me Employee Information and Leave Information are the key tables that should exist in the database. While working with the database I had to change the prototype repeatedly for the desired output.At last I finalized the design after getting the approval of both the company advisor and the academic advisor. 3. 4. 1. 2 Description of Tables The description of all the tables is provided in appendix A. xxix 3. 4. 2 Designing the User Interface While designing the user interface, I have tried to make the interfaces as userfriendly as possible so that from the interface the users easily understand what they are doing and what they should do. Moreover, I have attached quick tips in all the buttons so that they can understand what will happen if they Click it.Again, I have used red stars beside the mandatory fields and at the beginning of the pages where red stars are used; it has been mentioned that the red started fields cannot be blank. 3. 4. 3 Forms and Validations I have used PHP and HTML to create the forms that has been used in the prototype. I kept the back ground very simple so that users can find the information easily. For validating the forms, I have provided massages to the users so that they can check and correct their inputted values without difficulty. 3. 4. 4 An Example of Form’s Validation An example of the validation of a form is provided in appendix B. . 4. 5 Report Generation In this system I have not used any report generating tool. All the reports (e. g. Pending Leave List, Current Leave Status) have been generated using the SQL queries. These reports are shown on a page by using tables so that the users can view the requested reports. xxx 3. 4. 6 Logout Proper logging out is an important issue as it has a relation with the company’s privacy and security. A user must logout after s/he has completed his/her task. I have used session for login and logout. Every time a user logins in, a variable will be crated in the session with the same value of the User Id.When the user will log out then the session variable will be destroyed. As a result, no one will be able to use the â€Å"Back† option from the tool bar to go back to any pages of the previous user. 3. 4. 7 Accessibility and Authentication Every organization has employees with different position and rank. Moreover, different users has different task that they perform and they deals with divergent information. So, it is necessary to ensure that an employee will have accessibility only to those sections of the prototype which really required by them. For an example, an employee will not have the permission o access all the sections that the Branch Manager of the bank can access. So, accessibility of different users means privacy and security of important information of an organization. To maintain the accessibility I have used different forms for different types of user. When a user logs in, the system will check his/her user type and will present different pages accordingly. So, the Branch Manager will never be able to access the information which are not permitted for him/her but permitted for the System Administrator as they have different user type. xxxi Fig 3. 1: Main page for Branch Manager Fig 3. : Main page for System Administrator In this system, all the users have some specific authentication rights and these authentication rights have been categorized on basis of the user type. These are:xxxii Branch Manager: †¢ View the leave documentation. †¢ View the pending leave list. †¢ View the current leave status. †¢ View the employee expertise list. †¢ View the minimum expertise required for a particular department. †¢ View the available departmental expertise. †¢ Grant the employee’s leave (for some particular types of leave). †¢ Recall the employees from leave. †¢ View the yearly report. †¢ Change his/her password.System Administrator: †¢ Create new user. †¢ Delete any user. †¢ Add the employee information. †¢ Update the employee information. †¢ Delete the employee information. †¢ Change his/her password. Employees: †¢ View the leave documentation. †¢ Apply for leave. †¢ View the result of his/her leave request. †¢ Change his/her password. xxxiii Human Resource Department Officer: †¢ View the leave documentation. †¢ View the pending leave list. †¢ View the current leave status. †¢ Assign the employee expertise. †¢ View the employee expertise. †¢ Update the employee expertise. †¢ Assign the minimum expertise required for a particular department. View the minimum expertise required for a particular department. †¢ Update the minimum expertise required for a particular department. †¢ View the available departmental expertise. †¢ View the employee information. †¢ Grant the employee’s leave (for some particular types of leave). †¢ Recall the employees from leave. †¢ View the yearly report. †¢ Change his/her password. 3. 5 Implementation Phase 3. 5. 1 Coding and Testing I have used PHP and HTML for the front end and MySQL for the back end while implementing the system. I have completed almost all the pages except few. I have not completed the rest because of time constrain.As I am yet to implement the total system, the system has not gone through the testing phase. xxxiv 3. 6 Benefits of the Proposed System The proposed system will solve most of the problems that the existing system encompasses. This web based system will make the total leave management process faster and it will also save a lot of time and energy. The main benefits are: 1. The employees will not need to wait for a long time to know the decision of the authority as unlike the existing system where they need to submit the leave application one month ahead from the date of commencement of the eave applied for. 2. It will ensure that the most deserving person will get the leave as priority is assigned for each types of leave and for each employee. 3. Unlike the existing system where the leave register only contains the record of the granted leave, the pending leave list of the proposed system will contain the record of all the leave requests which are pending as a result an employee will not need to apply twice for the same leave. 4. Less chance of the manipulation of information as both the Branch Manager and HRD will get information directly from the system. 5.The management will get up-to-date report which will help them in decision making. xxxv 4. 1 Conclusion The proposed Leave Management System will make the whole leave management process efficient. Users will be able to access the software from anywhere. The employees may be applying for leave from their home as well. This supporting software will help the management in decision making in case of leave related affairs. Moreover, it will ensure less paper works and as a result the whole process will be swift and reliable. xxxvi REFERENCES Book [1] Jeffery A. Hoffer, Joey F. Geroge and Joseph S.Valacich, â€Å"Modern System Analysis And Design†, Ed. 3 rd India: Pearson Education . (Singapore) Pte. Ltd, 2002. [2] C. J. Date, â€Å"An Introduction to Database System†, Ed. 7 th. India: Pearson Education Singapore). Pte. Ltd, 2002. [3] Craig Larman, â€Å"Applying UML And Patterns†, Ed. 2 nd India: Pearson . Education (Singapore) Pte. Ltd, 2002. Website [4] http://www. dbbl. com. bd/xxxvii A. Description of the Tables Table Name: Employee_Information Description: Stores Information about the Employees. Primary key: Employee_Id Field Name Description Employee_Id Id of the employee. It groups all the employees together.First_Name First part of name of the employee. Middle_Name Middle part of name of the employee. Last_Name Last part of name of the employee. Designation Designation of the employee in the bank. E_Priority Assigned priority of the employee for leave by the bank. Joining_Date Joining date of the employee in the bank. Phone Employee’s residence telephone number. Mobile Mobile phone number of the employee. E_mail E-mail address of employee to contact through E-mails. Table Name: Create_User Description: Stores Information of the users that are using the system. Primary key: User_Id Field Name DescriptionUser_Id Id of the user. It groups all the users together. Employee_Id Id of the employee which already exists in the Employee_Information table. User_Type Type of the user (e. g. Employee, System Administrator). Password Password of the user to login in the system. xxxviii Table Name: Employee_Expertise Description: Stores Expertise of the Employees in each department. Foreign key: Employee_Id Field Name Description Employee_Id Id of the employee which already exists in the Employee_Information table. Cash Expertise of an employee in Cash department. General_Banking Expertise of an employee in General Banking department.Finance_Credit Expertise of an employee in Finance ; Credit department. Foreign_Trade Expertise of an employee in Foreign Trade department. Table Name: Available_Employee_Expertise Description: Stores Available Expertise of the Employees in each department. Modification of this table depends on the availability of employees. Foreign key: Employee_Id Field Name Description Employee_Id Id of the employee which already exists in the Employee_Information table. Cash Available expertise of an employee in Cash department. General_Banking Available expertise of an employee in General Banking.Finance_Credit Available expertise of an employee in Finance ; Credit. Foreign_Trade Available expertise of an employee in Foreign Trade. xxxix Table Name: Leave_Information Description: Stores Information about all types of Leave. Primary key: Leave_Id Field Name Description Leave_Id Id of the leave type. It groups all types of leave together. Leave_Name Name of the leave. Min_Days Minimum days at service required by an employee to be eligible for a particular type of leave. Max_Time The maximum number of days that an employee can take leave at a time for a particular type of leave.Priority Priority of the type of leave assigned by the bank. Table Name: Leave_Request Description: Stores Information about the requested leave. Composite key: Employee_Id, Start_Date Field Name Description Employee_Id Id of the employee which already exists in the Employee_Information table. Leave_Id Id of the leave type which already exists in the Leave_Information table. Start_Date Requested starting date of the leave. End_Date Requested ending date of the leave. Request_Date On which date the leave request was submitted. Status Status of the leave request (e. g. pending, granted).Narration Added comments regarding the leave request. xl Table Name: Min_Dept_Exp Description: Stores Minimum Expertise required by each department. Primary key: Department_Id Field Name Description Department_Id Id of the department. It groups all the departments together. Department_Name Name of the department. M_D_Exp Minimum cumulative employee expertise in a department required for smooth operation of that particular department. Table Name: Available_Expertise Description: Stores Available Expertise in each department. Modification of this table depends on the availability of employees.Foreign key: Department_Id Field Name Description Department_Id Id of the department which already exists in the Min_Dept_Exp table. Expertise Available cumulative employee expertise in a department. Table Name: Granted_Leave Description: Stores Information about the granted leave. Composite key: Employee_Id, Start_Date Field Name Description Employee_Id Id of the employee which already exists in the Employee_Information table. Leave_Id Id of the leave type which already exists in the Leave_Information table. Start_Date Granted starting date of the leave. End_Date Granted ending date of the leave. li Table Name: Recalled_Leave Description: Stores Information about the recalled leave. Composite key: Employee_Id, Recall_Date Field Name Description Employee_Id Id of the employee which already exists in the Employee_Information table. Leave_Id Id of the leave type which already exists in the Leave_Information table. Recall_Date Recall activation date. xlii B. An example of form’s validation For an example, here I am considering the login page. The users will put their specific User Id and Password to login. Every employee will be given a User Id and password by the System Administrator.The user will be able to change the password by clicking â€Å"Change Password†. Fig: Login page I have considered two scenarios for the validations in the login page. These are: 1. The user may miss spell his/her User Id or Password. 2. The user may keep the Password filed blank. If a user miss spells his/her User Id or Password then an error massage will be shown. Like in the database, there is an employee whose User Id is â€Å"u01101042† and Password is â€Å"bonny†. The user may try to login with a misspelled User Id â€Å"u01101024† or with a misspelled Password â€Å"boney†. liii Fig: User misspelled User Id In this situation in the next page s/he will get a massage, â€Å"Invalid User Id or Password†. Fig: Error massage for invalid User Id or Password xliv If the user keeps the Password blank, then in the next page s/he will get a massage, â€Å"Password can not be blank†. Fig: User keeps the Password blank Fig: Error massage for blank Passwordxlv C. Context diagram of the system Fig: Context diagramxlvi D. Data flow diagram of the system Fig: Level 0 DFDxlvii E. Use case diagram of the system Fig: Use case diagramxlviii How to cite A Proposed Leave Management System for Dutch-Bangla Bank Limited, Papers

Friday, May 1, 2020

Salman Rushdies Chekov and Zulu free essay sample

Most of the stories in Salman Rushdie’s book East, West regard the subject of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s assassination in 1984. Indira Gandhi was the first and to date the only female Prime Minister of the Republic of India has had. She served for three consecutive terms from 1966-1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in 1984. When Indira Gandhi returned for a fourth term in 1980, she became involved in a conflict with separatists, specifically the Sikh religious group, in Punjab. Two of Indira Gandhi’s bodyguards, both Sikhs, assassinated her with machine guns in the garden of her residence on October 31, 1984. The assassination led to rampages, riots and chaos in New Delhi, the capital city of India. Over the next few days, mobs ran through the streets of New Delhi and other parts of India, killing several thousand Sikhs. The 25-page story â€Å"Chekov and Zulu†, based in London, starts off a few days after the assassination of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi; it revolves around two main characters—Chekov, a Hindu and Zulu, a Sikh—and the effect of Indra Gandhi’s assassination on their friendship. We will write a custom essay sample on Salman Rushdies Chekov and Zulu or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In 1994, the year when East, West was published, violence against the Sikhs diminished, although other conflicts arose. Ethnic and regional tensions formed between India and Pakistan, leading to the Kashmir conflict, a dispute over the most northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. Current events in the year 1994, such as the previous example, contributed to the audience’s viewpoints about â€Å"Chekov and Zulu†. Interestingly enough, Chekov and Zulu received their names from two fictional characters from Star Trek, which in 1994, was widely popular.

Sunday, March 22, 2020

Woodstock Music and Art Festival

Introduction Woodstock is a town in Ulster County, New York, United States. The town got its name from the famous 1969 Woodstock Music and Art Festival:Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Woodstock Music and Art Festival specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It has earned a reputation as home to one of the most exciting periods of American popular music. The festivals were actually held elsewhere, but many of the creative people who made them what they were had been part of the charmed life of Woodstock, and some still reside here among our wooded hills. (Wood Stock 1) Out of the festival, the world of Rock and Roll Music has grown and with every festival of the kind that has been held, many talents have been discovered, and the industry has continued growing. In this paper, we will explore on Woodstock Music and Art festival, the challenges that were faced, and the impact of the festival to the music industry. The Festival The festival happened in Bethel, in a farm that belonged to a dairy farmer Max Yasgur. Though this was not the original venue, the festival had to be held there as the only available venue after the original venue was denied a few weeks before the event. Out of the outcomes of the festival, the event served as the revolution point in the popular music history. The idea came from four young men who advertised themselves as having unlimited capital with an idea to fostering peace and music. During the festival, a big number of people turned up that lead to roads getting jammed up; many roads were inaccessible to the point that supplies could not get to the venue. Performers being an important part of the festival had to look for other ways to get to the venue apart from using the roads. In regard to this White record that Yasgur farm place was so packed with attendees to the extent that performers had to be ferried by helicopters. It was a rainy weekend; it could have been fa ir to expect fewer people to attend, but that was not the case since the concert goers seemed not to mind the cold and the muddy situation, if anything, the situation created an opportunity for the people to bond regardless of the region they came from. White in the Woodstock Journal for August 15, 1969 recorded that food was a rare commodity since the service providers were fewer than the number available to feed. To deal with the lack, attendees had to do with the little they had brought with them and also share with others who had nothing. This created an environment of love and concern for each other as the concert goers shared in the same situation. This was very important, particularly since the world had just come from civil war that had created major divisions among people.Advertising Looking for term paper on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As it is expected, when the number in attendance exceeds the n umber planned for, there are always problems in meeting all the demands and so Woodstock was not an exception. Some basic amenities, medical care, correct sanitation for the number that kept on increasing every hour were a great challenge to get. White in his record of the second day reported that a medical tent had to be set up to treat bare feet cut by broken glass and metal can lids that littered the site, bad acid trips, and retinas burned when their stoned owners lied down and stared directly at the sun (White 1). Despite the many challenges that were faced by the promoters and the festival attendees, ranging from the weather, drugs and alcohol abuse by the youths, electricity failure, and poor sanitation, there was much joy, humility and integrity that came from the energetic youth (Makower, Lang and Joel 2). The event was marked as the most enduring event of the century and out of it, so many other events have come up including anniversaries of the same. Challenges Initial ch allenges during the planning period were to get the venue. The festival was legally barred from its planned location just a month before its scheduled date; this led to the promoters relocating immediately and looking for another venue since there was little or no time left for planning (Makower, Lang and Joel 1). After getting the venue, the next challenge was getting the artists whom the promoters wanted. It was not easy since the managers insisted on booking their unknown artists as the price to get their famous clients (Fusilli 1). Due to planning in haste, the promoter’s plan to charging the event was paralyzed by the lack of fence and a gate (Makower, Lang and Joel 1). This was discovered to be impossible to fix when the promoters got themselves in the dilemma of either fencing or putting up the stage. With the little finances they had left, the stage was given priority out of the advice they got from the people who arrived early. This made the place accessible to every body who was willing to attend at no cost at all. Satisfying the needs of the many people that turned out was a challenge in itself. According to White, the organizers had to make major adjustments to stop the vices that were going on like drug abuse, excessive drinking and the crowd getting unruly by extending the time of performance and adjusting the starting time of the performance (Makower, Lang and Joel 1).Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Woodstock Music and Art Festival specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The weather posed a major challenge for both the promoters and the audience. The disruptions by the heavy rains caused technical problems in electricity supply, and flooding were ankle-deep (White 1). Sound equipments had technical issues that could not be handled by the available engineers. Fusilli in the Wall Street Journal recorded that amplifiers buzzed, guitar cables crackled and microphones cut ou t. This posed the biggest challenge since the show had to be kept going. Impact it Made Out of the Woodstock Music and Art fair, many organizations have been founded based on the legacy the city made on preservation and peace keeping. An example is Sustainable Woodstock that was established in 2009 that works towards having a vibrant, inclusive, thriving community where people live sustainably now and in the future (Sustainable Woodstock 1). The festival led to the evolution of live music and its business over the period and beyond has built the music industry as far as rock music is concerned. It led to the change of perception that many people had on rock music as boring and old school but presented it as a thing of the present and the future (Bennett 1). Dave Allen is mentioned in Bennett’s book as considering â€Å"the significance of the Woodstock in terms of its illustration of a transitional stage between the more politically oriented folk-influenced acoustic music of the first part of the 1960s and the heavily amplified commercially-oriented rock of the second part of the decade† (Bennett 1). The Woodstock city got its status from being a hub of farming, quarrying and tanning to a productive and business-oriented town. Today, Woodstock is home to galleries that are widely noted for exhibits of the finest arts and crafts. There are important recital halls upon whose stages distinguish classical, jazz and popular music ensembles regularly performance (Wood Stock 1). Conclusion Even though the event was faced by so many challenges, it led to the change of the name for the town which was once known to be small and made up of farmers only. Just by one event that seemed impossible from the beginning, the town got an opportunity to grow economically and opened up to other things like trade and arts that were never there before. The event marked a turning point in the world of music since many started perceiving rock music as the thing of the pre sent. To them that are not sure of the impact that music could have on a place, Woodstock festival was an awakening time since many talents got developed, upcoming musicians who were not refined by then got an opportunity to present themselves, and many embraced music and live performance.Advertising Looking for term paper on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The event also served as a platform for peace since the world had just come from a civil war. As multitudes of people interacted and shared in the same problems of lack of food, water, heavy rains and poor sanitation, they helped one another out, which established peace. Works Cited Bennett, Andy. Remembering Woodstock. New York, NY: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2004. Print. Fusilli, Jim. â€Å"But How Was the Music.† The Wall Street Journal, 2009. Web. Makower, Joel, Lang Michael, and Rosenman Joel. Woodstock: the oral history. New York, NY: State University of New York Press, 2009. Print. Sustainable Woodstock. â€Å"Sustainable Woodstock.† Sustainable Woodstock, 2011. Web. White, Dave. â€Å"Woodstock Journal† Classic Rock Almanacs, 2009. Web. Wood Stock. â€Å"Town of Woodstock: Home.† Wood Stock, 2011. Web. This term paper on Woodstock Music and Art Festival was written and submitted by user Dominick Lara to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. 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Thursday, March 5, 2020


THE AUDIENCE YOU LOVE Promotion, my current nemesis, is a hungry, all-consuming animal, demanding every waking moment of your life. As a result of its commanding character, we often tend to turn reactive, appearing before anyone wholl let us pitch a table and flash our book. But soon youll be running harem-scarem, marketing like a snake-oil salesman, telling everyone your book will change their world. You dont want to go there. What an education Ive gained since Lowcountry Bribe came in early February. Ive spoken to a room of three and others of a hundred. Ive guest blogged on tiny sites and nationally known. My articles appeared in start-up magazines and the infamous The Writer Magazine. People have promised to buy and not followed through. Others bought several copies for gifts. Bookstore owners have loved me and tossed me on my ear. Even Barnes Noble said the book was available then forgot to order it. The list goes on. My husband ordered me to stop and slow down a week ago. My publisher shot me an email full of harsh realities of the business as who to trust and who isnt worth my time. Then I spoke to a small group in Greenville, SC. Then again in Pittsboro, NC. My 10th grade English teacher invited me to her book club for June, and another lovely lady is trying to schedule her book club to read Lowcountry Bribe and invite me to Myrtle Beach. My parents sold at least 50 copies to tax clients. A girlfriend lined up a newspaper interview, a reading and sales to several friends. Another friend hosted a party and sold 20 books. Here I was, running around like a chicken with its head cut off (not any of MY chickens, BTW), when I should have slowed down and really focused on who I want to reach and how to reach them. So . . . while Ill continue to do conferences here and there, becauseFundsforWriters commands it, I think Ill enjoy the camaraderie of smaller groups for Carolina Slades mystery series. I want people to chat about Slade, the characters, the setting and the twists of the plot. I want feedback on what they loved and would like to see done differently. I think reachable is the term Im seeking. A FundsforWriters reader told me last week that she liked the fact I was reachable. Id like to take that further and say likeable and personable. I attended a conference this year where the highly awarded guest author came and went with the wind, not staying for any of the event other than her talk and a brief moment when she said, Thank you. Ill now entertain questions. Since I get to know most of the conference organizers, I already knew the author was not happy to be there because she liked larger audiences. Dont ever let that be me. I just came off several small group events on the way to The Oklahoma Writers Federation Conference in Oklahoma City, where I am as you are reading this. A well organized event like this is a joy to behold, but I have to admit . . . I love the evening sessions or the small groups in the bar the most. When we are all writers and just enjoying the fact we are.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Global Warming - Is it the Biggest hoax we have ever faced Thesis

Global Warming - Is it the Biggest hoax we have ever faced - Thesis Example Yet, having bravely asserted their views, these dissenting voices have put an almost accepted fact into a much-heated debate: Is global warming real or a hoax? Unfortunately though, a debate over a scientific issue has become more political and economic rather than scientific. Science has been manipulated. Data are selectively included or excluded to make it appear that global warming is a real threatening problem, purposely, to justify preordained policy preferences. (Avery 1) Thus the questions of the day continue: Is global warming real that people and nations should prepare for doomsday? Is global warming man-made that humanity should pay for it by disusing fossil fuels or is it the biggest hoax humanity has ever faced? These are the interrelated questions which this research study would like to examine and shed light into by going through an intensive review of researches and studies done by authorities of the issue. This study is significant and relevant for the obvious reason that its impact to humanity is too great, as it is affecting almost all aspects of human lives. To start with, it would be necessary to define the issue and how it came to be. Global warming as implied by the term itself â€Å"is an increase in the average temperature of Earths surface† (Mastrandrea & Schneider, par. 1). The average temperature of the Earth is about 13oC or 56 oF (Sagan 1984) to 15 oC or 59 oF (Hart 2005) (qtd. in Tang, par. 2). How global warming has been discovered is a matter of history that has never been clear. Nevertheless, Weart accounts that it was only in 1896 that global warming was discovered by a forlorn Swedish scientist. However, it was regarded only as a mere concept that is fantastic and impossible. Then in 1950, global warming was taken seriously by few scientists in California appraising it as a possibility – a risk that could occur in distant future. This distant future finally